Course Objectives:

Software design(Software Design Course) is the process through which user requirements are transformed into a suitable form that enables programmers to code and implement software. The design document is generated during the software design phase, based on client requirements as stated in the SRS document. This phase is therefore aimed at transforming the SRS document into a design document.

Software Design Course |

In the design phase, the following things are designed and documented:

  • Various modules required.
  • Check relationships between modules.
  • Interface between several components.
  • Data structure between the various components.
  • Algorithms necessary for the different modules to be implemented.

Objectives of Software Design: 

  1. Correction: A good design should be correct, i.e. all system features should be implemented appropriately.
  2. Efficiency: Good software design should handle problems relating to resources, time and cost optimization.
  3. Understandability: a good design, which should be modular and all the elements layered, should be readily understood.
  4. Completeness: All components, such data structures, modules and external interfaces, etc., should be designed.
  5. Maintenance: a good software design should be easily changed when a customer request for changes is made.

Software Design Concepts: 

Concepts are described as a main concept or invention that comes to mind or to grasp anything. The concept of software design simply implies the concept or theory behind the design. It outlines how you propose to tackle the software design challenge, the reasoning or the way you think about software design. It allows the software engineer to design the system model or programme or product to be created or produced. A supportive and fundamental structure or model for designing the correct software is provided by the software design concept. Many notions of software design are available and some are mentioned below:

Following points should be considered while designing a Software: 

  1. Abstraction- hide Irrelevant data
    Abstraction is merely hiding details to decrease complexity and improve quality or performance. Various abstraction layers are essential and must be used at every stage of the design process so that any errors are removed to make the software solution more efficient and to enhance the software solution. The solution should be stated in broad directions covering a variety of things at a higher abstract level and a more specific explanation of the software solution should be supplied at the lower abstract level.
  2. Modularity- subdivide the system
    Modularity simply implies dividing the system or project into smaller sections to minimise the system or project complexity. Likewise, modularity in design indicates that a system may be subdivided in smaller components, such that these parts can be independently produced and then used in various systems for various roles. The programme must be divided into components known as modules, as diverse software like Monolithic software are already accessible, which is hard to understand for software developers. Modularity is therefore currently a trend and is essential. If the system has fewer components then it will mean a complicated system that requires a lot of work (cost), but if we can split the system into components then we have little cost.
  3. Architecture- design a structure of something
    Architecture implies merely a technique for designing something's structure. Software design architecture is a concept that focuses on different aspects and structural data. These components communicate and utilise structural data in architecture.
  4. Refinement- removes impurities
    Refinement simply implies that anything is refined to remove impurities and to improve quality. The notion of refining the software is essentially a process of creating or presenting the software or system in detail, which means developing a system or programme. Refining is extremely important if there is a mistake and then to decrease it.
  5. Pattern- a repeated form
    The pattern simply implies a repeating form or design that repeats the same form to make a pattern multiple times. The pattern in the design process indicates that the answer to a repeating common problem is repeated within a particular context.
  6. Information Hiding- hide the information
    Concealing information simply means hiding the information so that an undesirable party cannot access it. In software design, information hiding is obtained by the design of the modules such that the information acquired or held in one module is concealed and other modules cannot be accessed.
  7. Refactoring- reconstruct something
    Refactoring implies just rebuilding anything such that it does not change the behaviour or any other aspects. Software design reflects the design to minimise and streamline complexity without impacting the behaviour or operations. Fowler described refactoring as "a procedure that does not change the behaviour of the software system and improves the underlying structure."

Different levels of Software Design: 

There are three different levels of software design. They are: 

  1. Architectural Design:
    The system architecture may be seen as the overall system structure & how the structure ensures the system's conceptual integrity. The architectural design characterises the programme as a system that interacts with numerous components. The designers acquire the notion of the suggested solution field at this level.
  2. Preliminary or high-level design:
    The problem is divided into a series of modules, the control connection between the different modules is determined and the interfaces between the different modules are also discovered. The results of this step are called the architecture of the software. The structure chart and UML are design representation tools used at this phase.
  3. Detailed design:
    Once the design of the high level is complete, a thorough design is carried out. Each module is thoroughly analysed in depth to develop the data structure and algorithms. The results of the stage are documented in a module specification document.

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